What is an Incident?
While testing if the actual result varies from expected result it is referred to as bug, defect, error, problem, fault or an incident. Most often, all of these terms are synonymous. But Incidents can be defined in simple words as an event encountered during testing that requires review.
Every incident that occurs during testing may not be a defect or bug. An incident is any situation in which the software system has a questionable behavior, however we call the incident a defect or bug only if the Root Cause is the problem in the tested component and not other factors like test environment/test scripting issues.
ISTQB Definition : Any event occurring that requires investigation.
Other causes of incidents include mis-configuration or failure of the test environment, corrupted test data, bad tests, invalid expected results and tester mistakes.
What is Incident Report?
After logging the incidents that occur in the field or after deployment of the system we also need some way of reporting, tracking, and managing them. In some projects, a very large number of defects are found. Even on smaller projects where 100 or fewer defects are found, it is very difficult to keep track of all of them unless we have a process for reporting, classifying, assigning and managing the defects.
Incidence report is the detailing for any test that failed, when it failed and any supporting evidence intended to throw light on why a test has failed. This document is deliberately named as an Incident Report, and not a fault report, as discrepancy between expected and actual results can occur for a number of reasons other than a fault in the system. The most common defects reported are against the code or the system itself. However, in some cases, defects are reported against requirements and design specifications, user and operator guides and tests also.
Incidence report helps to have clear goals in mind when writing. One common goal for such reports is to provide programmers, managers and others with detailed information about the behavior observed and the defect.
What is the Difference between Incident and Defect?
Not all the Incident are defect, but all the defects are incidents. In other words unpleasant incidents are defects. Some of the incidents are because of failure in configuration issues these cannot be a bug.
- Incident= Any event occurring that requires investigation.
- Defect= Any flaw in a component/system that can cause a component/system to fail to perform its required functionality.
What is Incident Management?
Incident management is the overall process starting from logging incidents to resolving them.
It is a very critical process as this will ensure that the incidents get addressed is a systematic and effective manner. Also, by streamlining the entire process, there is a good chance that early fixing of the issues might happen.