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In the last chapter of Parameterization in Cucumber, we learned how to parameterize data. But with that trick, only limited functionality can be achieved of Data-Driven. As the test can be run multiple times. But by now that you know the anatomy of a Data-Driven test, here’s a trick that simplifies the process of Data-Driven testing using Cucumber. Cucumber inherently supports Data-Driven testing by the use of the Scenario Outline and Examples section. It is with these keywords that Cucumber allows for easy Data-Driven testing to be completed where no changes need to be made to the Java file. In this tutorial we learn, How to Implement a Scenario Outline in Data-Driven testing using Examples Keyword?

Example keyword can only be used with the Scenario Outline Keyword.

  • Scenario Outline - This is used to run the same scenario for 2 or more different sets of test data. E.g. In our scenario, if you want to register another user you can data drive the same scenario twice.
  • Examples– All scenario outlines have to be followed with the Examples section. This contains the data that has to be passed on to the scenario.

Data-Driven Testing Using Examples Keyword

If you understood the concept of Parameterization in Cucumber, you would find this one very easy. In this tutorial as well I am taking the same LogIn test scenario.

  1. Enter the Example Data just below the LogIn Scenario of the Feature File.


| username  | password  |

| testuser_1 | Test@153 |

| testuser_2 | Test@153 |

Note: The table must have a header row corresponding to the variables in the Scenario Outline steps.

The Examples section is a table where each argument variable represents a column in the table, separated by “|”. Each line below the header represents an individual run of the test case with the respective data. As a result, if there are 3 lines below the header in the Examples table, the script will run 3 times with its respective data.

  1. Need to update the Statement in the feature file, which tells Cucumber to enter username & Password.

And User enters <username> and <password>

Cucumber understands the above statement syntax and looks for the Examples Keyword in the test to read the Test Data.

The complete code will look like this:

Feature: Login Action

Scenario Outline: Successful Login with Valid Credentials
	Given User is on Home Page
	When User Navigate to LogIn Page
	And User enters "<username>" and "<password>"
	Then Message displayed Login Successfully
    | username   | password |
    | testuser_1 | Test@153 |
    | testuser_2 | Test@153 |
  1. There are no changes in TestRunner class.
package cucumberTest;

import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import cucumber.api.CucumberOptions;
import cucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;

		features = "Feature"

public class TestRunner {

  1. There are no changes in Test_Steps file from the previous chapter.
package stepDefinition;

import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;
import cucumber.api.java.en.When;

public class Test_Steps {
		public static WebDriver driver;
	@Given("^User is on Home Page$")
	public void user_is_on_Home_Page() throws Throwable {
		driver = new FirefoxDriver();
	    driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

	@When("^User Navigate to LogIn Page$")
	public void user_Navigate_to_LogIn_Page() throws Throwable {

	@When("^User enters \"(.*)\" and \"(.*)\"$")
	public void user_enters_UserName_and_Password(String username, String password) throws Throwable {

	@Then("^Message displayed Login Successfully$")
	public void message_displayed_Login_Successfully() throws Throwable {
		System.out.println("Login Successfully");

	@When("^User LogOut from the Application$")
	public void user_LogOut_from_the_Application() throws Throwable {
		driver.findElement (By.xpath(".//*[@id='account_logout']/a")).click();

	@Then("^Message displayed LogOut Successfully$")
	public void message_displayed_LogOut_Successfully() throws Throwable {
		System.out.println("LogOut Successfully");


  1. Run the test by Right Click on TestRunner class and Click Run As  > JUnit Test Application.

This takes the parameterization one step further: now our scenario has “variables” and they get filled in by the values in each row. To be clear: by defining this, the scenario will run two times, passing in one row at a time. This makes it very easy to define a lot of examples, edge cases, and special outcomes.  Instead of hardcoding the test data, variables are defined in the Examples section and used in the Scenario Outline section.

Note: Please create your own username & password for the test, if you supply wrong UserName & Password 3 times, your IP will get blocked.

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Lakshay Sharma
I’M LAKSHAY SHARMA AND I’M A FULL-STACK TEST AUTOMATION ENGINEER. Have passed 16 years playing with automation in mammoth projects like O2 (UK), Sprint (US), TD Bank (CA), Canadian Tire (CA), NHS (UK) & ASOS(UK). Currently, I am working with RABO Bank as a Chapter Lead QA. I am passionate about designing Automation Frameworks that follow OOPS concepts and Design patterns.
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Virender Singh

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